## Earned Value Management (EVM)

• Understand the concept of earned value management and its application in project monitoring and control.
• Learn how to calculate and interpret key EVM metrics, such as earned value (EV), planned value (PV), and actual cost (AC).

Earned Value Management (EVM) is a powerful project management technique used for measuring and assessing project performance. It integrates data related to project scope, schedule, and cost to provide a comprehensive view of a project’s health. EVM allows project managers to track progress, evaluate performance, and forecast future outcomes. Here’s a detailed explanation of EVM with examples:

#### Key EVM Metrics

1. Planned Value (PV):
Also known as Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS), PV represents the authorized budget for the work planned to be accomplished by a specific point in time. It’s essentially the value of the work that should have been completed according to the project schedule.

2. Earned Value (EV):
EV, or Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP), represents the value of the work that has actually been completed up to a specific point in time. It’s a measure of the project’s true progress.

3. Actual Cost (AC):
AC, or Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP), represents the actual cost incurred in performing the work up to a specific point in time.

#### EVM Formulas

Using these metrics, EVM calculates the following key performance indicators:

1. Schedule Performance Index (SPI): SPI measures the efficiency of schedule performance. It quantifies how well the project is adhering to the planned schedule.

Formula: SPI = EV / PV

• SPI > 1 indicates that the project is ahead of schedule.
• SPI < 1 indicates that the project is behind schedule.

2. Cost Performance Index (CPI): CPI measures the efficiency of cost performance. It quantifies how well the project is managing its costs.

Formula: CPI = EV / AC

• CPI > 1 indicates that the project is under budget.
• CPI < 1 indicates that the project is over budget.

#### EVM in Action

Consider a software development project with a budget of \$100,000 and a planned duration of 6 months. After 3 months (halfway through the project), the project manager assesses the following data:

• PV (Planned Value): \$50,000 (half of the budget, as per the project schedule).
• EV (Earned Value): \$45,000 (work completed is slightly behind schedule).
• AC (Actual Cost): \$48,000 (higher than planned due to unexpected expenses).

Now, let’s calculate the EVM metrics:

• SPI = EV / PV = \$45,000 / \$50,000 = 0.9 (indicating that the project is behind schedule).
• CPI = EV / AC = \$45,000 / \$48,000 ≈ 0.9375 (indicating that the project is over budget).
• CV = EV – AC = \$45,000 – \$48,000 = -\$3,000 (indicating a cost overrun).
• SV = EV – PV = \$45,000 – \$50,000 = -\$5,000 (indicating a schedule delay).

Based on these metrics, the project manager can conclude that the project is both behind schedule and over budget. This information allows for informed decision-making and corrective actions to bring the project back on track.